Click on any of the links below to go to research on that particular topic.


Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington, “Growing with Green: Business Districts and the Urban Forest.”

Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington, “Trees in Business Districts: Comparing Values of Consumers and Business.”

Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington, “Trees in Business Districts: Positive Effects on Consumer Behavior!”

Downtown Idea Exchange, April 2006. “Trees are worth downtown’s investment.”

Kathleen Wolf’s Presentation at Invest From the Ground Up East Hollywood Business Improvement Forum, Invest From The Ground Up, Trees and Retail Districts (PPT) and Video of presentation

Kathleen Wolf, Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, Vol. 35, No. 1, 33-40, January 2009. “Strip Malls, City Trees, and Community Values.”

Kathleen Wolf, Arborist News, April 2009. “More in Store: Research on City Trees and Retail.”

Kathleen Wolf, Journal of Forestry, Vol. 103, No. 8, 396-400, December 2005. “Business District Streetscapes, Trees and Consumer Response.”

Kathleen Wolf, Main Street News, August 2009. “Trees Mean Business: City Trees and the Retail Streetscape.”

Pacific Northwest Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture, “Trees are Good for Business.”

University of Washington, “Trees on Main Street: Influences on Retail and Shopping Behavior.”

University of Washington, “Visitor Preferences for Trees in Streetscapes: Nature and Commerce in Athens, Georgia.”

Washington Department of Natural Resources, “Grow for the Gold.”

Yannick Joye et al., Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9:57-64, 2010. “The Effects of Urban Retail Greenery on Consumer Experience: Reviewing the Evidence from a Restorative Perspective.


American Planning Association, “How Cities Use Parks to Create Safe Neighborhoods.”

California Urban Forests Council, “Trees and Sustainability through Design.”

Frances E. Kuo, W. Sullivan, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 33, No. 3, 343-367, 2001. “Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime?”

Tina Prow, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1993 “The Power of Trees.”

West Coast Arborists, “Trees in Our City.”

Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, “Trees Shed Bad Rap As Accessories to Crime.”


American Planning Association, “How Cities Use Parks For… Economic Development.”

California Urban Forests Council, “Urban Forestry and California’s Economy.”

Center for Urban Horticulture, “Urban Forest Values: Economic Benefits of Trees in Cities.”

Kathleen Blanchard, RN,, July 24, 2010. “Trees could Reduce Cost of Health Care.”

Kathleen Wolf, Urban Agriculture Magazine, 13: 31-33, 2004. “Economics and Public Value of Urban Forests.”


Carbon Reduction

California Urban Forests Council, “Trees—an Innovative Solution to Climate Change.”

David J. Nowak, Journal of Environmental Management, 37: 207-217, 1993. “Atmospheric Carbon Reduction by Urban Trees.”

E. Gregory McPherson, R. Rowntree, Journal of Arboriculture, Vol. 19, No. 6, November 1993. “Energy Conservation Potential of Urban Tree Planting.”

Massachusetts Urban Forestry Program, “Planting Trees To Fight Global Climate Change.”

Utah State University Cooperative Extension, “Landscape Trees and Climate Change.”

Heat Reduction & Energy Savings

Arbor Day Foundation, “Energy Saving Trees: Save up to 20% on Your Summer Energy Bills by Planting Trees.”

Arbor Day Foundation, “Most Popular Shade Trees.”

EPA, “Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies- Trees and Vegetation.”

Live Science, “Energy Savings from Shade Trees Documented.”

Ram Pandit, D. Laband, Ecological Economics, 69: 1324-1329, 2010. “Energy savings from tree shade.”

Utah State University Cooperative Extension, “Planting Trees For Energy Conservation: The Right Tree In The Right Place.”

Noise Reduction

Arbor Day Foundation, “Using Trees and Shrubs to Reduce Noise.”

USCA National Agroforestry Center, “Trees as Noise Buffers.”


The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, “Urban Trees for Wildlife.”

Urban Forestry Network, “Planting Trees for Wildlife in an Urban and Community Forest.”

Health & Safety

Air Quality

California Urban Forests Council, “Trees—an Innovative Solution to Air Pollution.”

City of Boulder Water Conservation Office, “Air Quality, Pollution, and Trees.”

David J. Nowak, USDA Forest Service, 2002. “The Effects of Urban Trees on Air Quality.”

National Recreation and Parks Association, “Air Quality Effects of Urban Trees and Parks, Executive Summary.”, “How Trees Reduce Urban Air Pollution.”

Urban Forestry Network, “Trees Improve Our Air Quality.”


Andrea Faber Taylor et al., Environment and Behavior, Vol. 33, No.1, 54-77, January 2001. “Coping with ADD: The surprising connection to green play settings.”

American Society of Landscape Architects, Health Benefits of Nature Online Guide

California Urban Forests Council, “Trees—an Integrated Approach to Public Health Concerns.”

Dr. Dick Jackson, “Systemic Disorders Require Systemic Treatments.”, “Trees protect against cancer.”

Kathleen Wolf, Arborist News, April 2008. “City Trees, Nature and Physical Activity: A Research Review.”

Roger S. Ulrich et al., Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 201-230, September 1991. “Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments.”

San Diego Earth Times, March 2003. “Trees could affect land use, reduce skin cancer.”

Science Daily, July 226, 2010. “The Healing Effects of Forests.”

Woodland Trust, “Trees can help improve your health.”


Center for Urban Horticulture, “The Calming Effect of Green: Roadside Landscape and Driver Stress.”

Nicholas J. Bratton, K. Wolf, 2005. “Trees and Roadside Safety in U.S. Urban Settings.”

Nicholas J. Bratton, K. Wolf, Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, Vol. 32, No. 4, 170-179, July 2006. “Urban Trees and Traffic Safety: Considering U.S. Roadside Policy and Crash Data.

University of Washington, “Trees in Urban Streetscapes: Research on Traffic Safety and Crash Risk.”

Water Quality

American Society of Landscape Architects, “Banking on Green: A Look at How Green Infrastructure Can Save Municipalities Money and Provide Economic Benefits Community-wide.”

Arbor Day Foundation, “How Trees Can Retain Stormwater Runoff.”

California Urban Forests Council, “Trees, an Age-old Solution to an Age-old Problem – Water.”

Jennifer Seitz, F. Escobedo, University of Florida, 2008. “Urban Forests in Florida: Trees Control Stormwater Runoff and Improve Water Quality.”

John Freeborn, Virginia Tech University, 2011. “Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration.”


Better Homes and Gardens, “Assessing the Value of Trees and Shrubs Checklist.”

Clay Martin et al., Journal of Arboriculture, Vol. 15, No. 3, March 1989. “The Contributory Value of Trees to Residential Property in the Austin, Texas Metropolitan Area.”

George H. Donovan, D. T. Butry, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 10:163-168, 2011. “The effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon.”

Kathleen Wolf, Arborist News, August 2007. “City Trees and Property Values.”, “How Your Garden Grows: The Effect Of Trees On Property Value.”

Society for the Advancement of Education, USA TODAY, July 1994. “Trees enhance property values.”


Canopy, “Hiring An Arborist.”

TreePeople, “Choosing the Right Place.”

TreePeople, “Choosing the Right Tree.”

TreePeople, “How to Care for a Tree.”

TreePeople, “How to Water a Tree.” (video)

TreePeople, “Mulching Guidelines.” (video)

TreePeople, “Plant the Right Way.” 

Trees Are Good, “Buying High-Quality Trees.”

Trees Are Good, “Find a Tree Care Service.”

Trees Are Good, “Insect and Disease Problems.”

Trees Are Good, “Mature Tree Care.”

Trees Are Good, “New Tree Planting.”

Trees Are Good, “Plant Health Care.”

Trees Are Good, “Proper Mulching Techniques.”

Trees Are Good, “Pruning Mature Trees.”

Trees Are Good, “Recognizing Tree Risk.”

Trees Are Good, “Tree Selection and Placement.”

Trees Are Good, “Trees and Turf.”

Trees Are Good, “Why Hire an Arborist?”

Trees Are Good, “Why Topping Hurts Trees.”


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